学术写作修辞手法Ethos、Logos 和 Pathos 详解

在美国大学写作课中,学生都会学到重要的修辞手法 — EthosLogos Pathos。但是在我们的辅导过程中,可以感觉到同学们对于这三个词很眼熟,但却不清楚它们具体指的是什么手法,也不明白它们对于学术写作有何重要意义。

 

所以,本文会举例说明 EthosLogos Pathos 到底是什么,以及好的文章是如何运用它们来增加说服力的。

 

Ethos

当我们评估一篇文章或一段演讲的Ethos时,我们要看的是作者是如何建立其在目标读者和观众中的权威和信誉的。Ethos这一写作手法主要包括两部分:

1)通过论据 argument 来建立自己的可信度和信誉;

2)向观众展示什么是对的,什么是错的。

 

优秀的作家往往会运用ethos手法让读者对其写作感到信服和满意,从而使读者觉得自己的文章论点是清晰而有见地的(Lumen, 2020)。这就是我们学习ethos最重要的目的。

 

比如,以下是乔布斯在斯坦福大学2005年毕业典礼上演讲稿中的一段话,它很好地展示了如何合理使用ethos手法来吸引观众。

 

“Woz and I started Apple in my parents’ garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30…

 

During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the world’s first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.”

 

乔布斯在说这段话时,并不只是在很宽泛地讲自己的经历,而是提到了包括 NeXT 在内的公司、电影、产品等的具体名称,让人有证可寻,极大地增加了可信度。听众们也会觉得乔布斯说的这些都是他亲身经历的,而不是泛泛而谈。

 

所以,简单来说,要正确运用ethos,就要使用具体、可靠的事实和资料来源。这样读者和听众才会信你。

 

Logos

Ethos不同,当我们评估一份作品的Logos时,我们主要考虑的是论据的逻辑性和论证的依据。 这时,我们要看的是,论文或演讲的哪些元素会使观众相信其论点是有逻辑的,且有充分的证据来支持的。

 

所以,在分析logos的时候,主要考虑以下这些问题就行了(Lumen, 2020):

1)  前提是否真实?

2)  结论是否合逻辑?

3)  是否有足够的、典型的、准确的且相关的证据来支持和归纳文章的推理?

4)  演讲者或作者是否有试图转移观众对实际问题的关注?

 

这几点都是合理使用logos的创作要素。

 

比如,一下这段话就很好地运用了logos手法:

 

“Apple has come down from $363 in February to $316 Monday. Furthermore, that masks the fact that the company is sitting on a ton of net cash. At the end of the last quarter, cash, securities and other liquid assets exceeded liabilities by $51 billion, or around $55 a share. This may top $60 by the end of this quarter” (Arrends, 2011).

 

这段话引用了包括 $363$316等的大量数据,论据充足而有力,且符合逻辑,从而使这段话十分具有说服力。

 

Pathos

最后,我们来看看Pathos手法。这一修辞手法最容易理解,简单地说,就是要共情,要吸引读者注意力,让读者对你的作品产生同理心。

 

所以,当我们在审视pathos的时候,我们要想的是这个演讲或文章是否会引起观众的兴趣和同情,里面的内容是否包含了与观众有情感联系的元素。

 

马丁·路德·金于1963年的著名演讲《我有一个梦想》中有这样一段话:

 

“I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest — quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.”

 

这段话开头的三个排比句,就是在诉说着其目标观众很可能有过的经历。它们极大地引起了观众的兴趣,激发了情绪,我想当时在场的人一定都很动容。完美地运用了pathos这一修辞手法,使得马丁·路德·金于的演讲成为了经典,经久不衰。

 

综上所述,Ethos 是在讲信誉,Logos 强调逻辑,而 Pathos 则注重读者的共鸣。合理地使用 EthosLogos Pathos 这三个修辞手法,可以有效地增加文章的说服力和吸引力。因此,绝大多数初级学术写作课上,都会涉及这三项内容。希望本文可以帮助同学们写出更加精彩的文章。

 

References

Lumen. (2020). Evaluating appeals to ethos, logos, and pathos. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-englishcomposition1/chapter/text-evaluating-appeals-to-ethos-logos-and-pathos/

PathosEthosLogos. (2015). Retrieved from https://pathosethoslogos.com/