浅谈时间如何影响学习效率

浅谈时间如何影响学习效率

By Brian J. White

 

真参与每节课

家长和老师都知道,有一些因素在孩子的学习中是非常重要的。这些因素中包括课程的内容和组织结构,学习者的阅读能力,还有一些学生自身的因素包括努力程度、接受程度和学习态度。但是,影响学习成果最重要的因素是时间,或者像有些人说的——花费在任务上的时间。

关于时间因素,有许多方面需要仔细考虑。比如在一天中学习的时间段选择——不同时间的学习效果大不相同。投入学习的时间总量是其中最重要的一个因素,而学校、家长和社区在其中起决定性作用。一个典型例子是,关心孩子的家长愿意为孩子的学习投入时间,并且这项投入能很快看出效果。

学生对时间的掌握能力同样重要。增加学习的时间有多方面影响,比如增加时间的同时要考虑质量因素。首先,必须要尊重学生在学习中的作用,增加他们在学校和课堂上的出勤率。美国的一项研究显示学习效率和出勤率之间有直接的因果联系,许多美国的学校都把出勤率当做课堂评分的重要标准。

但令人担忧的是,尽管上述研究有如此明确的结果,加上事实本身常识性的存在,许多聪明和传统意义上的成功学生正越来越随意的对待课堂出勤,并且这个坏习惯很难被纠正,他们的努力和上进心正在不断减少。家长和学校有理由要求学生保持100%的课堂出勤率,对于那些认为“少时间投入反而效果更好”的学生,可以通过道理说服他们,或者直接让他们待在课堂!

 

在美的中国学生如何高效率使用时间

语言和文化的障碍是所有国际学生的难关。中国学生可以通过参与小组讨论学习来克服他们,但是只和其他中国学生待在一起会减少小组学习的机会。这就是为什么厚仁教育倾向于让学生在寄宿家庭的环境下体验正宗美国文化。融入美国人的群体是一个非常有益的因素,中国学生在学习讨论课时,应当主动邀请美国同学,平衡组内中国人和美国人的数量,让大家都感觉成为组织的一员。要积极主动发言,为以后的课堂参与打下基础。在学习小组中,你可以和组员一起复习课堂笔记,尤其要善于和美国同学合作,复述笔记以保证你的理解和美国他们模一样。这会极大提高你的笔记质量,强化你的课堂记忆,并且提高你的英语流利度。在这种转化内容的参与中,其他同学也可以提高他们的学习能力。你或许希望成为学习小组的领导,永远做第一个发言的人,主动招募同学参与讨论——记住,这些课余时间正是你来到美国学习的原因。

 

时间和高效学

厚仁教育鼓励学生利用手边的一切资源。许多大学有写作中心、电脑实验室和学生指导中心等帮助学生提高成绩的机构,而且几乎都是免费的。如果这些设施还不够,厚仁诚挚推荐通过一些课后辅导机构来提高成绩,比如厚仁推出的ASPIRE Pathway。你复习课程内容的频率越高,方法越多样,你对课程理解的程度就越深。除此之外,要合理运用时间——当你在小组内和同学们讨论时,不要把时间都用来社交聊天,打游戏,或者打电话回中国。学生还要安排好学习中的休息时间,最好能做个时间表管理每一次休息。厚仁教育认为食物,休息和锻炼是最大效率学习的基础——无论课上还是课下。

 

Factors Impacting Learning –  TIME

 

By Brian J. White

 

Attending Every Class 

It is no surprise to parents and educators that certain identifiable factors are crucial in improving or mastering learning.  Some include organization of the content (curriculum), readiness of the learner, as well as student factors such as effort, aptitude or attitude. The factor most easily manipulated for altering learning output is time, or as some label it – time on task.

There are many aspects of time that can be considered. Time of day is one example – when instruction takes place can show different results.  The amount of time devoted to instruction and learning is the paramount aspect of this factor.  The school, parents and community determine the amount of time to be devoted to learning. Typically, concerned parents extend and supplement this significant factor – it is a factor both measurable and controllable and with almost predictable causation.

Time controlled by the student is equally important.  Expanding the time has many variations.  Maximizing instructional time for students also has quality issues to anticipate.  Focusing on the student’s role in maximizing time starts with student attendance at school and in class.  Research in America indicates a direct correlation between learning and attendance.  Many instructors use attendance, officially or unofficially, consciously or unconsciously, as part of the course grade.

What is frightening is that despite the research and the obviousness of this basic tenet, a casualness about attending class erodes student learning among bright and traditionally successful students and can become a habit and almost impossible to correct.  Effort and motivation suffer.  Attending class 100% of the time is what parents and teachers demand and have a right to expect.  Who are the students that believe less time is better? Dare they argue that point? Let them speak, or just get in class!

 

Chinese students in America need to make quality use of time

Barriers such as language and culture face all international students.  Chinese students gain by engaging in group study.  But just studying with other Chinese students lessens the potential of group study.  This is one reason WhoeRen prefers the home-stay model (such as offered by organizations like American Home Stays) when practical. Incorporating Americans into the group is mutually beneficial.  The international students need to make a point of inviting American fellow students to study sessions.  Try to balance the number of Americans and Chinese so all feel welcome. Be a salesperson to further participation.  Just to review notes to ensure you heard and undertsood the instructor the same way  the American students did will enhance your notes and reinforce your memory of what was covered in class (and improve language proficiency).  All students who converse and participate will help clarify and enhance the learning for each member of the group.  Be a leader and start a group.  Be a leader and recruit peers to attend.  This bonus time is why you are studying in America.

 

Time and Maximizing Learning

WholeRen encourages utilizing any and all support available.  Many colleges offer help in writing centers, computer labs and tutoring centers – most likely free.  If these are not accessible, WholeRen recommends formal arrangements through entities such as ASPIRE Pathway.  The more times you hear the content, the more varied formats and exchanges, the deeper is your learning of what is being taught. Prioritize your time; when you are at your peak –study.  Don’t use your “prime” time for  socializing, video games or calling China.  Earn your study breaks – schedule them if necessary.  WholeRen has found that food, rest and exercise are the ingredients to maximize learning time- whether in class or after class.

 

浅谈时间如何影响学习效率
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